Hans van Eck
De Zaale 20, 5612 AJ Eindhoven

Magnum-PSI is the main research facility in the DIFFER PSI-Lab. This linear plasma generator is the only laboratory experiment in the world capable of producing the extreme conditions near the wall of the ITER reactor and future fusion reactors.
Magnum-PSI was developed to study the material aspects in fusion reactors. However, the facilities are relevant to study any high intensity plasma-wall interaction system. The diagnostic capability of the facilities aims at detailed studies of plasma-wall interaction process and material studies.
In Magnum-PSI, a cascaded arc plasma source produces a hot, dense plasma which is guided to the target by a superconducting magnet. A multitude of diagnostics is employed to analyze the plasma and the wall material during and after exposure. This includes an Ion Beam Facility, which uses a 3.5 MV ion accelerator to investigate (sub)surface material properties and processes of energy-related materials.

Magnum-PSI is specifically developed to study the material aspects in fusion reactors and in general any high intensity plasma-wall interaction system. The infrastructure consists of:
-1- an intense source for magnetized plasmas. The system can mimic the steady state heat fluxes as well as the bursty transient heat fluxes (a.k.a. ELMs) as expected in future fusion reactors.
-2- versatile, water cooled, target holders, to position the materials under investigation into the plasma beam. The target material can be electrically biased with respect to the plasma source.
-3- a diagnostic park, for detailed analysis of the plasma conditions and the material and surface conditions. In particular, the plasma diagnostic park consists of incoherent and collective Thomson scattering, fast infrared cameras (for thermography), multi wavelength pyrometer, visible light spectroscopy systems, calorimetry, resistive foil bolometer, Laser Induced Break-down Spectroscopy.
-4- Capillary porous structures (CPSs) are available to create conduction based stabilized plasma facing components to enable the study of interaction between plasma and liquid metals such as lithium, tin and gallium.
-5- A new Upgraded Pilot-PSI (UPP) PSI test facility is being installed with diagnostics to measure the evolution of surface modifications during plasma exposure. Research topics of interest include: deuterium retention in tungsten and lithium, chemisorption of hydrogen, simultaneous damaging and fuel implantation, and material migration in solids and liquids, especially tungsten and liquid lithium.
-6- An Ion Beam Facility (IBF) is available, for detailed studies of the surface morphology after plasma exposure. The IBF has beam lines to Magnum-PSI, UPP and a stand alone Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) station. The IBF offers various ion beam analysis techniques such as in situ RBS, ERD and NRA and stand-alone PIXE and PIGE.
-7- A versatile and flexible experiment called nano-PSI uses relatively low temperature and low density plasmas to expose materials. It is primarily used to study plasma enhanced modification of surfaces, for example for nano- and micro-structuring of electrodes for efficient water splitting, plasma interactions with liquid metals (Sn, SnLi) or optical systems (Ru, Mo).
-8- Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) is available to measure what molecules are adsorbed on the surface.
-9- A glove box to prepare liquid metal samples in a controlled atmosphere.

It foreseen that the Magnum-PSI facilities will be extended in the coming years. This comprises the diagnostic capabilities (Laser Induced Fluorescence with vacuum UV broad-band absorption spectroscopy to measure the rotational and vibrational distributions of molecular hydrogen and multi imaging spectroscopy), a source test facility (with the view to develop more potent sources for various linear devices) and a dedicated facility to test flowing liquid metal concept reactor components and the option to test larger components in Magnum-PSI to study macroscopic dynamic heat fluxes. New IBA detectors for UPP will be developed with the view to carry-out ion beam analysis of the plasma facing materials during plasma eposure.

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